What you are seeing here is a rare test of a fast attack nuclear submarine's ability to rapidly empty its ballast tanks via forcing high pressure air into them, otherwise known as an "emergency blow."
Such a technique is used when a submerged sub has a loss of power or other catastrophic event such as a fire or battle damage. You can see what an actual real world blow looks like in the videos below. The speed, angle and height at which the sub breaches the surface depends on how deep it was at the time of the blow and how fast its ballast tanks can be emptied. I have talked to multiple submariners who have told me it is a fun, albeit a little surreal ride up to the top.
One can only wonder what the ultimate leviathan of the deep, the Russian Typhoon Class, would look like performing such an extreme maneuver!? I have also been told that the Navy's huge Ohio Class SSBNs and SSGNs are most spectacular to see perform an emergency blow as their long hull comes way out of the water at a very steep angle. Maybe some Foxtrot Alpha readers that have had Dolphins pinned on their chests will confirm or deny this?